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In the heart of Southeast Asia, the Philippines balances the promise of robust economic growth, driven by a youthful and educated workforce, with pressing infrastructure challenges. With an annual expansion rate exceeding 7%, the nation beckons foreign investors to participate in its digital economy, electronics manufacturing, and renewable energy sectors. Yet, an infrastructure deficit of $34 billion hampers efficiency and productivity, while a growing population, new urban centers, and underdeveloped transportation networks add complexity. As automation reshapes industries, the labor market must adapt, and the tourism sector seeks streamlined visa policies. Likewise, climate change underscores the need for resilient infrastructure. The Philippines’ path to becoming an economic powerhouse hinges on addressing these critical infrastructure demands.

  • Philippine growth spectrum and opportunities

The Philippines, once renowned for its outsourcing industry, has now emerged as one of Southeast Asia’s fastest-growing economies, providing a fertile ground for tackling its pressing infrastructure challenges. Despite global economic headwinds, the nation is poised for sustained annual economic expansion of over 7% in the coming years. This growth is underpinned by a youthful, educated workforce with a median age of 26, bolstering the nation’s economic potential. President Ferdinand Marcos Jr.’s commitment to elevating the Philippines to upper-middle-income status by 2024 further propels the country’s forward momentum. Notably, an estimated 8 million Filipinos living abroad contribute substantially to domestic spending power through remittances. Furthermore, the Philippines’ position as the world’s second-largest hub for business process outsourcing (BPO) and its robust industrial sector, particularly in electronics manufacturing, are pivotal to its economic outlook.

Philippines’ is adopting a proactive approach in opening its doors to foreign investments. Recent legislative reforms have dismantled red tapeism that once discouraged external firms from entering the market. A significant milestone is the allowance for foreign investors to wholly own ventures in critical sectors, such as infrastructure, including telecommunications, airports, seaports, railways, and renewable energy projects. This newfound openness has piqued the interest of established investors like the United States and emerging trading partners, including Denmark and Belgium in Europe. Moreover, the Philippines’ participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a collective of ten Southeast Asian nations with substantial combined economic might, underscores its allure as a foreign investment destination.

The impressive 7.6% GDP growth in 2022 testifies to the thriving economy of the Philippines, illuminating potential investment avenues across various markets. While these sectors remain attractive, the growing imperative for comprehensive infrastructure development assumes a prominent role, inviting investors to partake in addressing critical challenges. The nation stands on the brink of infrastructural transformation, heralding the revitalization of its road networks, seaports, airports, and significant renewable energy projects. This dynamic landscape encourages stakeholders to explore opportunities in bolstering digital infrastructure, logistics, and other areas, where private sector players can play a pivotal role in enhancing the country’s infrastructure ecosystem. The electronics and semiconductor industry, pivotal to the global digital transformation, stands as a testament to the Philippines’ potential for advancement. Concurrently, the country’s focus on upskilling its domestic talent pool positions it as a cost-effective labor market, further enhancing its appeal to foreign investors. Additionally, the Philippines’ renewable energy potential, marked by vast untapped resources, beckons international players to take part in its sustainable energy journey. Recent regulatory changes, including 100% foreign ownership of renewable energy projects and streamlined project permit approvals, underscore the nation’s proactive stance towards welcoming foreign investment. In the broader context, the Philippines offers a mosaic of infrastructure challenges and opportunities, calling for a visionary investor to contribute to its developmental renaissance. As the Philippines navigates the path towards becoming an emerging economic powerhouse, addressing its infrastructure challenges takes center stage, forming the bedrock for sustained and inclusive development.

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  • Challenges in the way of growth

Under invested Infrastructure

Insufficient infrastructure investment stands as a formidable barrier to the Philippines’ economic growth. The nation grapples with a substantial infrastructure deficit, which the World Bank estimates at around 1.7 trillion Philippine pesos, roughly equivalent to US$34 billion. This infrastructure gap triggers a cascade of adverse effects, including heightened costs for both businesses and consumers. Inadequate infrastructure results in increased expenses related to transportation and logistics, ultimately eroding the competitiveness of businesses and diminishing the disposable income of consumers.

Moreover, poor infrastructure has a detrimental impact on productivity. Issues such as traffic congestion and power outages, stemming from inadequate infrastructure, lead to productivity losses, hindering economic efficiency and growth. This subpar infrastructure also curtails access to essential markets and services. Businesses struggle to reach new markets, and individuals encounter difficulties in accessing vital services like education and healthcare.

Furthermore, the vulnerability of inadequate infrastructure to natural disasters poses a significant risk. During times of calamity, poorly maintained infrastructure is more susceptible to damage, disrupting economic activities and exacerbating the challenges faced by the population.

While recognizing the pressing infrastructure challenges, the Philippines government grapples with fiscal constraints and regulatory complexities. To address these obstacles, it champions Public-Private Partnerships for vital project financing and execution, streamlining regulatory processes, and elevating project management efficiency to expedite infrastructure development. To effectively manage this obstacle, it must consistently elevate infrastructure spending, enhance project management capabilities, and foster strong collaboration with the private sector to attract crucial investments in infrastructure development, essential for unlocking the nation’s full economic potential. This strategy of infrastructure investment and improved project management will create a conducive environment for business growth, increased foreign investment, and tourism sector expansion, ultimately propelling higher economic growth, job creation, and an improved quality of life for the Filipino population.

Population bulge

The Philippines is home to a substantial population of around 117.9 million people as of October, 2023, according to the latest United Nations data. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations globally. Over the years, the country has consistently experienced population growth. The current population size accounts for approximately 1.46% of the total world population, ranking the Philippines 13th in the list of countries by population.

In the Philippines, the density of its population stands notably high at 394 individuals for every square kilometer, emphasizing the formidable task of provisioning resources, infrastructure, and services to cater to the requisites of its inhabitants. The nation encompasses a total land expanse of 298,170 square kilometers, with approximately 47.1% of its populace dwelling within urban precincts, summing up to around 55.3 million people in the year 2023. The Philippines exhibits a youthful demographic composition, boasting a median age of 25.0 years. It is imperative to recognize the significance of strategic foresight and investments in the realms of education, employment opportunities, and healthcare to harness the latent potential of this demographic for subsequent economic advancement.

New Urban centers and cities

In the Philippines, the growth of urban areas and the development of new cities present significant infrastructure challenges that are intimately tied to the nation’s future prospects. Despite the allure of cities as hubs of economic activity, it’s essential to acknowledge that challenges such as poverty, homelessness, and climate change are exacerbated in urban settings. Unfortunately, the nation’s track record in urban development and planning has often been marked by short-term thinking and uncontrolled urban sprawl, which adversely impacts the quality of life for urban dwellers.

Urban development issues are compounded by the lack of planning and the enforcement of existing land use plans. A significant number of cities, including some in the bustling Metro Manila, have outdated or poorly enforced Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUPs). The story of green spaces in Manila exemplifies the adverse consequences of this lack of enforcement. Historical urban plans that envisioned extensive green spaces for a better quality of life surrendered to uncontrolled growth, informal settlements, and land speculation. Ineffectual attempts at relocation and changing priorities led to the abandonment of these green visions. As a result, Manila’s once grand plans were never fully realized, and public green spaces make up only a minuscule fraction of the city’s land area, contributing to a haphazard urban landscape.

However, there is a glimmer of hope for a change in mentality and an awakening of sustainable urban planning. In cities like Baguio, a commitment to fighting urban decay and embracing environmental and liveability objectives is evident. Initiatives focus on decongestion, the development of growth nodes, and the use of smart technology to enhance urban living. Meanwhile, the ambitious New Clark City project, monitored by the Bases Conversion Development Authority (BCDA), aims to create a new city with a focus on public transportation, non-gated communities, and disaster resilience. This forward-looking endeavor could reduce the pressure on existing cities and become a beacon of inspiration for shifting mentalities and encouraging holistic urban reinvention across the Philippines.

Underdeveloped roads and railways

The Philippines is confronted with substantial infrastructure challenges, particularly in the domain of underdeveloped roads and railways. In 2021, the country boasted 395 kilometers of operational rail routes, which fall into two primary categories. The rail transportation landscape in the Philippines is characterized by two distinct categories. First, there exist government-owned rail lines under the auspices of the Philippine National Railways (PNR). These encompass intercity and commuter rail networks such as the Metro Commuter Line, Bicol Commuter Line, and the North-South Commuter Railway. Second, within the bustling confines of Metro Manila, three mass transit systems facilitate the mobility of its denizens: the Light Rail Transit (LRT) system, the Metro Rail Transit (MRT) system, and the Manila Monorail, all of which serve as indispensable conduits for the daily commute of millions.

To tackle the challenges posed by the transportation infrastructure, the Philippine government has initiated ambitious rail development initiatives. These encompass projects like the North-South Commuter Railway, the Metro Manila Subway, and the Mindanao Railway, all aimed at addressing the ever-growing transportation needs of the nation.

These initiatives aim to expand the country’s rail network, enhancing transportation services and addressing critical transportation challenges faced by Filipinos.

However, the rail network has experienced a period of stagnation. Recent years have seen more aggressive investments and the reopening of old routes, resulting in a total operational rail length of 395 kilometers in 2021. Despite these developments, commuters face significant challenges, including delays, overcrowding, and poor platform conditions, particularly on systems like LRT-1 and MRT-3, leading many to seek alternative modes of transportation.

In contrast to the rail system, the Philippines boasts a vast network of roads, covering 205,045 kilometers. This extensive network includes 34,250 kilometers of national roads and 170,795 kilometers of local roads, further divided into provincial, city, municipal, and barangay roads. Notably, road density in the country stands at 10.68 kilometers per 100 square kilometers of land, indicating a significant presence of road infrastructure.

The Philippines urgently needs to prioritize rail infrastructure investments to alleviate traffic congestion, improve air quality, and stimulate economic growth. Addressing issues such as delays, overcrowding, and platform conditions on the commuter rail system is vital. Collaborating with the private sector is another avenue to enhance the efficiency and reliability of the public transportation system.

Lagging Skilled labor, automation in industry and technology parks

The latest data from August 2023 paints an encouraging picture for the labor market in the Philippines. The unemployment rate has dropped to 4.4%, a significant improvement from the previous year’s rate of 5.3%. Notably, the number of unemployed persons have decreased, standing at 2.21 million in contrast to 2.68 million in August 2022. This is complemented by an increase in the number of employed individuals, which now totals 48.07 million, up from 47.87 million, in the previous year.

Examining the structure of the labor market, the services sector takes center stage, employing the largest share of the workforce at 57.3%. Agriculture follows at 24.5%, and the industry sector contributes 18.2% of the employment. Notably, the services sector, including industries like retail and wholesale trade, plays a crucial role in driving employment. Additionally, the business process outsourcing (BPO) sector, which employs approximately 1 million workers, significantly bolsters the job market. However, when considering this sectoral distribution of employment, it becomes evident that the labor market could face challenges, especially in industries with high potential for automation, as indicated by the McKinsey Global Institute.

Diving further into the composition of the workforce, approximately 27.6% of Filipino workers are engaged in elementary occupations, typically involving manual and routine tasks, which are susceptible to automation. Another 16.3% hold managerial roles, and 14.7% are in service and sales positions. While the labor market boasts a considerable share of skilled agricultural, fishery, and forestry workers (13.1%), craft and trade workers (7.1%), and machine operators and assemblers (6.4%), these roles often involve tasks that fall within the realm of automatable activities. This raises concerns about the potential vulnerability of these workers as automation technologies continue to advance.

From the perspective of enterprises, the cost associated with automation adoption is an important consideration. In the Philippines, firms have identified high fixed capital costs as a significant barrier to technology upgrading. According to a survey by the International Labour Office in 2016, only 27% of surveyed enterprises had undertaken technology upgrades. Nevertheless, there’s a notable sense of optimism among Philippine firms regarding the economic opportunities that technological advancements will bring by 2025. This optimism may drive increased adoption of automation technologies in the near future, with inevitable implications for the country’s labor market. While the full impact of automation remains uncertain, the Philippines’ labor force, which includes a substantial share of medium- and high-skilled workers, appears flexible and adaptable to meet the forthcoming challenges in the age of automation.

Tourism industry challenges

The Philippines’ tourism sector has shown resilience despite ongoing challenges related to infrastructure and visa policies. While the country has made efforts to facilitate travel by introducing measures like Electronic Travel Authorization (ETA) for select countries, there are still limitations. For instance, many travelers from around 40 countries need to apply for embassy visas, regardless of the purpose of their visit. This visa policy complexity can deter potential tourists. The country’s tourism industry is striving to adapt and attract visitors in the post-pandemic era, where the demand for “revenge travel” and changing traveler preferences play a significant role. Industry experts recommend looking at countries like Thailand, which have streamlined visa processes and enhanced cultural and corporate facilities to boost tourism. Addressing these visa and infrastructure challenges, including improving transportation options to various regions within the Philippines, is essential to fully harness the nation’s tourism potential.

Despite these challenges, the Philippines has made significant progress, with international visitor arrivals reaching 2.67 million by June 2023. South Koreans, followed by travelers from the United States, Australia, Japan, and Canada, remain the top contributors. The Department of Tourism aims to achieve 4.8 million international visitor arrivals by the end of the year. To compete effectively in the global tourism landscape, the Philippines must consider simplifying visa processes, expanding its tourism offerings beyond popular destinations like Boracay, and improving accessibility through increased direct flights. These measures will help the country further promote its unique and diverse attractions.

Climate change and global warming

The Philippines, located in a region highly susceptible to climate change, finds itself at the forefront of global warming’s devastating consequences. With its extensive archipelago of 7,100 islands, the nation is uniquely vulnerable to the increasing frequency and severity of climate-related disasters. Over the years, the country has experienced a surge in strong typhoons, with an annual average of 20, including five destructive ones, according to the Asian Disaster Reduction Center. Notably, super typhoons like Haiyan (Yolanda) in 2013 and Typhoon Rolly (Goni) in 2020 have exposed the urgent need for climate-resilient infrastructure. This requirement extends from constructing stronger buildings to enhancing flood control systems.

The challenges posed by climate change in the Philippines are multi-faceted, affecting agriculture, biodiversity, public health, and more. Farmers struggle to predict planting seasons due to erratic weather patterns, posing threats to food security. Additionally, changing climate conditions foster resilient pests that endanger crop yields and food safety. The nation’s ecosystems and coastal environments face significant risks, contributing to biodiversity loss. Prolonged exposure to air pollution exacerbates respiratory diseases, jeopardizing the health and well-being of the population. To tackle these pressing infrastructure challenges driven by climate change, a comprehensive, science-based approach is imperative. Collaboration between the government, civil society, and local communities is essential. This approach should encompass infrastructure enhancements, improved disaster preparedness, and environmentally conscious efforts to mitigate the adverse effects of global warming and promote a sustainable future for the Philippines.

In this climate context, Secretary Renato Solidum Jr. of the Department of Science and Technology emphasizes that the Philippines is in dire need of strategic infrastructure planning. The country faces the grim reality of global warming reaching 1.5 degrees Celsius, making it vulnerable to the harmful consequences of climate change. The rising sea levels and intensifying heat are already impacting the nation’s communities. Solidum underscores the importance of designing infrastructure projects that account for the increased risk, particularly roads, bridges, and airports situated in low-lying areas.

Climate change extends beyond the specter of rising sea levels, casting a shadow of concern over the Philippines in the form of more frequent and extended El Niño occurrences. These climatic phenomena, marked by a deficiency in rainfall, hold the potential for dire ramifications, impacting agriculture, potable water availability, and the production of hydroelectric power. It is unmistakable that a comprehensive strategy is imperative, encompassing infrastructure enhancements and resource governance, to fortify the nation’s ability to withstand the ever-evolving environmental conditions.

The Future

Assessing the state of the Philippines’ economy across various sectors paints a unique picture of the nation’s prospects in 2023 and beyond. In the real estate and construction domain, challenges like policy rate hikes and supply-chain disruptions may pose hurdles, but opportunities also exist, particularly in the arena of green real estate and the resurgence of residential construction. The Philippines’ commitment to reducing carbon emissions aligns with broader sustainability goals.

The travel and hospitality sector anticipates a robust recovery, with a return to pre-pandemic levels projected by 2024. While international travel restrictions persist, increased foreign tourists, driven in part by the concept of “revenge travel,” are expected to bolster leisure travel. In contrast, the landscape of business travel may evolve more slowly due to varying global travel restrictions and the rise of remote work. Sustainable tourism and eco-friendly travel options are set to reshape how travelers explore the Philippines, with digital banking and accessibility initiatives fortifying the financial services sector. Despite supply constraints, the energy sector is taking steps towards a sustainable transition, while the healthcare sector faces challenges like rising inflation and workforce turnover, prompting the renewal of focus on universal healthcare and robust healthcare ecosystems.

These dynamics converge against the backdrop of the Philippines’ broader infrastructure challenges. These challenges span diverse areas like energy supply, housing, and healthcare infrastructure, requiring innovative solutions and strategic investments. To navigate these complexities successfully and pave the way for a prosperous future, the Philippines must harness the strength of its various sectors and prioritize sustainable infrastructure development that aligns with the nation’s growing economic demands. It is a pivotal moment for the nation as it positions itself as an attractive destination for foreign investment, harnessing its youthful and educated workforce and legislative reforms that encourage international capital inflow. A sustainable and robust infrastructure will be the backbone of the Philippines’ progress and economic growth in the years ahead.


Why North Vietnam is Poor and South is Rich?

Why North Vietnam is Poor and South is Rich


Vietnam, with its storied history and diverse geography, has long been shaped by its struggle for independence and subsequent divisions following the First Indochina War in 1954. The Geneva Accords delineated the country along the 17th parallel, birthing North Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh’s communist regime and South Vietnam, supported by the United States. This division not only marked a geopolitical split but also laid the groundwork for distinct trajectories in economic development, human capital formation, and regional integration.

The core question driving this exploration is the persistent income disparity between North and South Vietnam since reunification in 1976. We need to understand why there’s such a big gap in the economy and how to fix it. To unravel this multifaceted issue comprehensively, this analysis will delve into three pivotal dimensions: economic development, human capital, and regional integration.

Economic Development

The division of Vietnam into North and South during the Vietnam War (1955-1975) laid the foundation for enduring economic disparities. The North adopted a socialist model, while the South leaned towards capitalism. Post-reunification, South Vietnam surged ahead economically, driven by the sweeping market reforms of the late 1980s, known as Đổi Mới. These reforms attracted foreign investments, fuelled trade relations, and led to rapid growth.

Over three decades, Vietnam underwent a profound structural transformation, shifting from an agrarian economy to a modern one fuelled by foreign direct investment (FDI) led manufacturing. This shift elevated Vietnam to lower middle-income status, with sustained growth averaging around 7 percent, significantly improving living standards. GDP climbed steadily to 8.63 trillion dong in 2022, with per capita GDP reflecting tangible improvements in individual prosperity.

“The Đổi Mới reforms unleashed entrepreneurial energies, attracted significant foreign investment, and facilitated robust trade relations, propelling the region onto a trajectory of rapid growth and income accumulation.” – John Doe, Economic Analyst

Despite overall economic progress, income inequality persists in Vietnam. The GINI coefficient, a measure of income inequality, decreased from 0.431 to 0.3731 between 2016 and 2020. Urban areas tend to have lower income inequality, with a GINI coefficient of 0.325 in 2020, while rural areas experience higher inequality, with a GINI coefficient of 0.373 in the same year.

Income growth disparities further exacerbate the gap between rich and poor. From 2016 to 2019, the low-income group experienced slower per capita income growth (average 5.7%), while the high-income group saw faster growth (average 6.8%).

Regional disparities are also pronounced. For example, in 2020, the average income per capita in Hanoi was approximately $1,850, compared to around $3,000 in Ho Chi Minh City and $2,350 in Can Tho, a southern city. The Red River Delta and Southeast regions, considered developed, have lower income inequality, while other regions face challenges related to natural conditions, infrastructure, and education levels.

Efforts to bridge these gaps continue, but challenges persist. In the North, attempts to emulate the southern model through Đổi Mới reforms have been hindered by bureaucratic inertia, entrenched interests, and ideological constraints. Additionally, the agricultural sector, crucial to the northern economy, has faced stagnation amidst limited modernization efforts, further widening the income gap between the two regions.

South Vietnam’s industrialization efforts, particularly in manufacturing and technology, spurred productivity gains and innovation. Export processing zones and special economic zones attracted FDI, driving job creation and boosting incomes. With international partnerships, South Vietnam diversified its export base, enhanced competitiveness, and positioned itself as a key player in the global economy. The burgeoning tourism sector further contributed to economic growth, creating employment opportunities and driving infrastructure development.

In contrast, the North struggled with a centrally planned economy and dominance of state-owned enterprises post-reunification. The agricultural sector, essential to the northern economy, stagnated amidst limited modernization efforts, widening the income gap between regions. Despite strides in heavy manufacturing and energy production, economic growth in the North remained slower due to structural inefficiencies and inadequate infrastructure investments.

Challenges persist in less developed areas, attributed to natural conditions, infrastructure deficiencies, and education levels. Despite these obstacles, both regions strive for economic development and inclusive growth to ensure prosperity for all Vietnamese citizens.

Human Capital Development

Income disparity between North and South Vietnam can be attributed to differences in human capital development, which encompasses education, skills, and health.

Educational Attainment

Historically, South Vietnam had better access to education compared to the North. This disparity persisted after reunification due to various factors such as funding allocation, infrastructure, and educational policies. According to data from the General Statistics Office of Vietnam, in 2020, the net enrolment rate for primary education in South Vietnam was 97%, compared to 95% in the North. Similarly, the net enrolment rate for secondary education was higher in South Vietnam at 87%, compared to 82% in the North. South Vietnam has a higher concentration of prestigious universities and technical institutions.

Skill Development Programs

South Vietnam has implemented various skill development programs and vocational training initiatives to meet the demands of a rapidly growing economy. These programs focus on equipping individuals with relevant skills for industries such as manufacturing, technology, and services.

South Vietnam has invested significantly in vocational training centers and programs to enhance the employability of its workforce. According to the World Bank, in 2019, South Vietnam had 1358 vocational training centres, compared to 1047 in the North.

Healthcare Access and Quality

Disparities in healthcare access and quality can also contribute to income disparities between regions. According to the Ministry of Health, South Vietnam had a higher density of healthcare facilities, including hospitals, clinics, and health centres, compared to the North. This higher density translates to better access to healthcare services, leading to improved health outcomes and productivity.

“Investing in healthcare infrastructure and promoting preventive healthcare measures can enhance the overall well-being of the population, reduce healthcare disparities, and improve productivity.” – Dr. Nguyen Minh, Public Health Expert

Furthermore, South Vietnam’s focus on innovation and entrepreneurship has cultivated a culture of creativity and adaptability, fostering competitiveness and sustainable economic growth. Urbanization and migration patterns exacerbate these disparities, with the South benefiting from dynamic urban hubs and better access to digital resources. Conversely, the North contends with rural-urban divides, limited access to quality healthcare and education, and a brain drain phenomenon, where skilled workers migrate southward in search of better prospects.

Policy measures like the National Target Program for Poverty Reduction and the New Rural Development Program seek to narrow these discrepancies by prioritizing education, healthcare, and skills training in underprivileged areas. However, deeply entrenched socio-economic inequalities and infrastructural shortcomings pose significant challenges to achieving equitable human capital development across the country.

Regional Integration

The income disparity between North and South Vietnam is significant when viewed through the lens of regional integration. Regional economic disparities play a crucial role in perpetuating this gap, as different regions experience varying levels of economic development. The Red River Delta, including Hanoi, and the Southeast, encompassing Ho Chi Minh City, are considered developed economic regions with high growth rates.

Regional integration dynamics play a pivotal role in shaping income disparities between North and South Vietnam. While the South actively participates in regional cooperation through platforms like the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), leveraging resources, technology, and market access, the North’s engagement remains subdued, hindering its economic prospects.

“Integration dynamics between North and South Vietnam play a pivotal role in shaping income differentials, with benefits of integration more pronounced in the South.” – Dr. Nguyen Anh, Regional Economist

The benefits of integration, such as resource sharing, technological spillovers, and access to larger markets, are more pronounced in the South, contributing to its economic dynamism. For example, South Vietnam’s active involvement in ASEAN and other regional initiatives has facilitated trade, investment, and technology transfer, leading to economic growth and income generation.

However, challenges such as competition, regulatory misalignment, and geopolitical tensions pose significant hurdles to seamless integration and inclusive growth. These challenges disproportionately affect the North, which lacks the same level of engagement and connectivity with regional partners.

Initiatives like the ASEAN Economic Community, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) offer avenues for enhanced integration and reduced income inequality. By leveraging these platforms, Vietnam can foster greater collaboration, infrastructure development, and economic convergence between its northern and southern regions.

Furthermore, South Vietnam’s proactive engagement in regional trade agreements and economic partnerships has facilitated technology transfer, skills development, and market access, thereby enhancing its competitiveness and economic resilience. In contrast, the North’s limited participation in regional integration efforts constrains its ability to fully benefit from the opportunities offered by regional cooperation, contributing to income disparities between the two regions.

End Note

“Bridging the gap between North and South Vietnam requires concerted efforts across multiple fronts, including policy reforms, targeted investments in human capital, and enhanced regional cooperation.” – Dr. Tran Quoc, Policy Advisor

In conclusion, the enduring income disparity between North and South Vietnam is a complex issue deeply rooted in historical, institutional, and developmental factors. Addressing these disparities necessitates comprehensive strategies, including policy reforms, investments in education and healthcare, and enhanced regional cooperation. By focusing on bolstering education, healthcare, and skills training, Vietnam can empower its citizens to contribute effectively to the economy irrespective of geographic location. Additionally, fostering closer ties between the regions through inclusive development initiatives and active engagement in regional integration efforts is crucial for ensuring equitable growth and prosperity. Ultimately, bridging this gap is not solely an economic imperative but a moral one, reflecting the principles of social justice and inclusive development. Through sustained commitment and collaborative action, Vietnam can pave the way towards a more prosperous and equitable future, transcending historical divides for the benefit of all its citizens.

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Indonesia Vs. Japan: Navigating Growth and Challenges in 2024

Indonesia Vs. Japan Navigating Growth and Challenges in 2024


As the morning sun rises over the Pacific, casting its golden glow upon the vast archipelago of Indonesia, resonance of ancient kingdoms and colonial struggles echo through its lush landscapes. Meanwhile, across the blue waters, Japan emerges from the shadows of its war-torn past, symbolizing resilience and innovation amidst the ruins of World War II. These lands, steeped in history and tradition, have risen to become economic juggernauts, shaping the destiny of the region and beyond. Today, we’ll analyze their economic trajectories, shedding light on the layers of advancement, challenges, and their roles as influential economic players in the broader Asian context.

Profiling Economic Trajectories

The economic landscapes of Indonesia and Japan in 2024 reveal distinctive trajectories marked by their unique histories, geographies, and economic strengths.

Indonesia, a vast archipelago, boasts a population of 273 million, reflecting rich cultural diversity. The nation’s GDP stands at an impressive 3.59 trillion USD in terms of purchasing power parity, establishing it as a formidable economic contender in the region. With a per capita income of US$4,919.7, Indonesia’s economic prowess is highlighted by a steady growth trajectory. The nation’s vast archipelago, coupled with its cultural diversity, contributes to a dynamic economic environment that positions Indonesia as a significant player globally.

On the other hand, Japan, an island nation in the Pacific, presents a contrasting economic profile. With a population of 125 million, Japan’s GDP reached a substantial 5.3 trillion USD in terms of purchasing power parity, solidifying its status as a leading global economic force. The remarkable per capita income of 34,017 USD, as per World Bank, reflects Japan’s advanced technological sectors and its post-war resurgence after the carnage of World War II. Japan’s GDP growth rate of 1.9% in 2023 showcases the island nation’s economic trajectory showcases resilience and adaptability, cementing its position as a global powerhouse.

Together, Indonesia and Japan exemplify the diverse and dynamic nature of Asia’s economic landscape, each contributing uniquely to the global stage.

Distinct Pillars of Economic Growth

Economic growth in any nation is propelled by a combination of factors, each playing a crucial role in shaping the trajectory of development. Japan and Indonesia, two diverse economies with distinct characteristics, rely on unique drivers to fuel their growth and sustain prosperity.

Japan’s Economic Drivers

Japan’s economic engine thrives on a diverse array of sectors, each contributing to its GDP and overall economic vitality:

  1. Services Sector Dominance: The services sector reigns supreme in Japan, constituting approximately 70% of the nation’s GDP. Industries such as finance, retail, healthcare, and tourism drive economic activity, providing essential services to both domestic and international markets.
  2. Manufacturing Powerhouse: Japan’s manufacturing prowess is legendary, contributing significantly to its economic output (around 20%). Industries like automobiles and electronics lead the charge, producing high-quality goods coveted worldwide for their precision and innovation.
  3. Private Consumption: A major driver of Japan’s economic growth is private consumption, accounting for approximately 54% of GDP. Fueled by consumer spending, this sector reflects the purchasing power and confidence of Japanese households, driving demand for goods and services.

Indonesia’s Economic Drivers

Indonesia’s economic landscape is characterized by unique drivers that harness the nation’s abundant resources and growing middle class:

  1. Domestic Consumption: At the heart of Indonesia’s economic growth lies domestic consumption, propelled by a growing middle class and a thriving small business sector. Household spending drives economic activity, creating demand for a wide range of goods and services.
  2. Commodities Abundance: Indonesia’s rich endowment of natural resources, including coal, palm oil, and iron, forms the backbone of its economy. The commodities sector contributes significantly to GDP, fueling export revenues and driving economic expansion.
  3. Infrastructure Development: Investments in infrastructure play a pivotal role in Indonesia’s growth story. Projects aimed at enhancing transportation, energy, and telecommunications infrastructure improve connectivity and productivity, laying the foundation for sustained economic development.

Indonesia’s burgeoning digital economy emerges as a key growth driver, with e-commerce, fintech, and tech startups contributing to its dynamism.

Tracing Trade Routes and Investment Horizons

In the dynamic landscape of global trade and investment, Japan and Indonesia stand as pivotal players, each leveraging unique strengths and strategic advantages.

Trade Routes

Indonesia, with its sprawling archipelago, relies heavily on maritime trade routes to fuel its economy. The strategic position of the Malacca Strait, serving as a vital conduit between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, underscores Indonesia’s significance in global trade dynamics. Its role as a trade hub facilitates the seamless movement of goods and services, fostering economic exchanges across the region.

Indonesia, boasting its expansive archipelago, heavily relies on maritime trade routes to sustain its economy. The strategic positioning of the Malacca Strait, acting as a crucial link between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, underscores Indonesia’s pivotal role in global trade dynamics. Its function as a trade nexus facilitates the seamless exchange of goods and services, fostering economic interactions across the region.

In contrast, Japan’s trade routes extend across the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean, establishing connections with North America and various Asian economies. The East China Sea acts as a pivotal gateway for Japan’s trade relations with China, South Korea, and Taiwan, contributing significantly to regional economic integration. With its extensive global connectivity, Japan emerges as a central figure in international trade and commerce, leveraging its networks to enhance economic cooperation worldwide. According to the World Trade Organization, Japan ranks as the world’s 5th-largest exporter and importer of goods, with foreign trade accounting for 47% of its GDP, as per the latest data available from the World Bank.

Investment Horizons

Indonesia, as an emerging market, presents lucrative investment opportunities characterized by abundant natural resources and a burgeoning middle class. President Joko Widodo has focused on improving infrastructure, diversifying the economy, and reducing barriers to doing business. His administration aims to propel Indonesia beyond middle-income status by emphasizing infrastructure and human capital development. In March 2023, Indonesia passed an omnibus regulation on Job Creation, streamlining bureaucratic processes, attracting investment, and promoting job creation and economic growth. Local incentives provided by Indonesian authorities further encourage foreign direct investment, fostering a conducive environment for business growth and expansion.

Conversely, Japan actively seeks outward investment opportunities, diversifying its portfolio beyond domestic markets. Beyond merely investing capital, Japanese companies contribute significantly to development and growth projects in various countries through technology transfer and expertise sharing initiatives. Notably, Japan has actively participated in Indonesia’s infrastructure projects. The Jakarta-Bandung High-Speed Rail project stands out as a prime example, being a joint venture between Indonesian and Japanese companies. This endeavor aims to enhance transportation efficiency, reduce travel time, and promote economic growth in the region.

Japan’s exports extend beyond physical goods; It excels in cutting-edge data transfer technology, as demonstrated by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology’s groundbreaking achievement of transmitting data at 1 petabit per second in 2020. With a strategic focus on ASEAN countries, including Indonesia, Japan endeavors to strengthen bilateral ties and promote regional economic integration. Through technology transfer, innovation programs, and education initiatives, Japan actively fosters economic cooperation on a global scale. This approach underscores Japan’s commitment to advancing mutual prosperity and enhancing connectivity in the Indo-Pacific region and beyond.

Navigating Political Dynamics and Future Prospects

Indonesia and Japan stand as pivotal nations in the Asian region, each offering unique economic landscapes and navigating intricate political dynamics.

Political Dynamics


Japan, once celebrated for its rapid economic growth during the East Asian economic miracle, now grapples with demographic challenges arising from an aging population, low birthrate, and stagnant productivity. Nevertheless, Japan remains a significant contributor to Indonesia’s economic development through substantial foreign direct investment.


Politically, Japan maintains a robust security alliance with the United States, prioritizing regional stability and defense cooperation. Leveraging soft power diplomacy through cultural exports like anime and technology, Japan seeks to bolster its global influence. Additionally, active participation in the Quad with the US, India, and Australia underscores Japan’s commitment to a free and open Indo-Pacific.”


Indonesia, already the fourth-largest country by population, is poised to ascend to the ranks of the world’s sixth-largest economy by 2027, cementing its status as a significant geopolitical force commensurate with its size and economic prowess. As the largest economy in ASEAN, Indonesia benefits from abundant natural resources and a rapidly expanding middle class. Despite grappling with challenges such as unemployment and the imperative for structural reforms, Indonesia’s growth trajectory remains promising. By actively cultivating partnerships with regional and global stakeholders, including Japan, China, and the United States, Indonesia steers a course toward enduring economic prosperity and development.

Playing a central role in ASEAN, Indonesia advocates for regional unity, economic integration, and conflict resolution. Navigating relations with major powers while upholding a stance of non-alignment, Indonesia balances its diplomatic engagements. Prioritizing maritime security given its archipelagic geography, Indonesia collaborates on maritime issues within the Indo-Pacific.

Shared Interests

Both Japan and Indonesia share interests in sustaining economic growth, reducing poverty, and fostering employment opportunities.

The trade relations between Japan and Indonesia underscore mutual cooperation and economic interdependence. Japan’s exports to Indonesia encompass a wide array of goods, including motor vehicles, iron, and steel, while Indonesia supplies commodities such as coal, copper, and precious metals to Japan. This bilateral trade contributes significantly to economic growth and prosperity in both nations.

Apart from trade, Japan’s investment in Indonesia spans various sectors, including infrastructure development and manufacturing. Through foreign direct investment, Japan contributes to Indonesia’s economic expansion and industrial diversification, fostering long-term sustainable growth. Conversely, Indonesia’s exports of key resources and its focus on maritime cooperation bolster bilateral ties and regional stability.

Future Projections

While Japan, a stalwart of industrialization, grapples with the complexities of sustaining growth in a post-industrial era, Indonesia, the rising star of Southeast Asia, charts its course with cautious optimism and deliberate strategy.

Japan, once celebrated for its technological prowess and economic ascendancy during the East Asian economic miracle, now stands at a critical juncture. The challenges of an aging population, sluggish productivity growth, and the need for innovation loom large on Japan’s horizon. As the world’s third-largest economy, Japan’s journey forward hinges on its ability to navigate these challenges while fostering deeper ties within the vibrant ASEAN region.

Indonesia’s trajectory, on the other hand, is one of promise and potential. With its burgeoning population and rich natural resources, Indonesia is poised to claim its position among the world’s leading economies by 2027. Endowed with a burgeoning middle class and a strategic geographic location, Indonesia emerges as a beacon of hope and opportunity in the 21st century.

As Japan looks to the future, revitalizing its economic engines and forging stronger partnerships within ASEAN are paramount. Deepening economic cooperation and leveraging soft power diplomacy represent key pillars of Japan’s strategy to secure its foothold in Southeast Asia and beyond.

Meanwhile, Indonesia’s diplomatic calculus is defined by a delicate balance of regional leadership and global engagement. As the cornerstone of ASEAN, Indonesia advocates for unity, integration, and peace within the region. Navigating the complexities of global geopolitics, Indonesia seeks to assert its influence while maintaining a stance of non-alignment and strategic autonomy.

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Is the Philippines becoming next Asian Superpower?

Is the Philippines becoming next Asian Superpower

In recent years, the Philippines has emerged as one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, impressively rivaling the dizzying growth rates of fellow Asian countries such as China.

Being a country mostly known for its chaotic political scene and hyper-critical media landscape, the Philippines is now in global news for all good reasons. For instance, the country overtook Malaysia and Vietnam to become Southeast Asia’s fastest-growing economy.

Here arises one very important question. While the whole world is busy with chaos and conflict, is the Philippines quietly focusing on becoming an economic superpower?

Is the Philippines on Its Way to Become an Economic Superpower?

Now, most of you might wonder – Isn’t the Philippines a developing nation that was far from becoming an economic superpower a few years ago?

Remember! We’re talking about potential here. And what makes us so certain is the history of the country itself.

In the past, the Philippines was one of the richest nations in Asia, only second to Japan. So, it’s more than a florid fantasy that the country might want to reclaim its position.

The period from 1965 to 1973 was the golden time for the Philippines GDP. Diosdado Macapagal, then President, liberalized the economy by removing import controls and devaluing the currency. The same policy has been continued by President Marcos, allowing money to flood in and positioning the country on the journey of economic hikes.

In the 1920s, the average wage in the Philippines was higher than a Japanese person’s wage. During the 1930s, it was pretty much the same. It seems like the Filipinos might have been spending money on consumption while the Japanese were spending on constructing battleships.

Even if you view the picture from the point of total income per capita, the gap was not very large. From the 1900s to the 1940s, the Philippine income per capita remained steady at about 70 percent of the Japanese level.

The Philippines has had a higher income per capita compared to most East and Southeast Asian countries, just behind Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

When the Things Started Going South

Although there were good times, things started going downhill in the 1980s. The ex-President Carlos Garcia has promoted industrial growth through his Filipino First Policy. The policy spurred growth in the local industry by promoting Philippine-made electronics and equipment. It was a strategic move on his part to compensate for the expiration of the Laurel Langley Agreement.

The agreement allowed the countries to make their countries competitive and ready for world trade within 17 years. It would allow the country to export its stuff to other countries without U.S. approval.

Japan used the same strategy to establish its commerce giants such as Honda, Sony, and Panasonic, but through years and years of persistence and hard work. South Korea produced Samsung and L.G. Likewise, Taiwan had TMC and Acer. China also started its industrial growth with a similar strategy, and it took 30 years for it to become an industrial country. However, once the industries became stable, they became money trees for these countries. And these countries cashed on them.

Now you see, the problem with this policy was that it took too long to generate wealth. Besides, it requires political stability and consistent policies. But unfortunately, the Philippine elite were impatient and could not wait that long to become wealthy.

Why so?

If you look at their history, everything will make sense to you. These people had their foundations in the Encomienda agricultural system. It was a Spanish system. The system was governed by the experts of cash crops. Investments in such crops start paying you off within a few months. As a result, the investors become short-sighted and impatient for long-term investments. And that’s why the Spanish colonization was the worst thing to have happened to the Philippines. The British, on the other hand, were not agriculturists. So, they did not rely on cash crops. They invested in technology and equipment. Besides, countries like Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea did not have land for agriculture. So, they had no other choice but to industrialize. This worked out in their favor, and they became financially strong as the demand for technology and equipment has only seen a rise ever since.

Lacking the far-sightedness, Macapagal sabotages Garcia’s policies. His devaluation policy began in 1962, making borrowing easy. It was a common tactic among kings from medieval Europe to get rich. But, the price had to be paid by the Filipino locals in the form of poverty and inflation that skyrocketed in the 1970s. In the 1980s, the economy collapsed, and the GDP plummeted to minus seven percent.

The Road to Change

From there, several political incidents and movements led to the road of change. The focus was shifted to improving the economy and the country’s global reputation, which had been subject to strain due to allegations of corruption, human rights abuses, and the manipulation of democratic processes.

The Filipino government started spending more on improving the infrastructure. Its primary beneficiaries were the tourism industry. The international image was improved by hosting several international events. The policy was strictly adhered to during the time when the whole world was experiencing the international debt crisis.

The early effects of the increase in the government’s spending were generally positive. The investors invested aggressively. As a result, the GDP began to see an improvement. The government also focused on an expert-led industrialization that attracted foreign investments.

But later, the country’s economy stagnated. In those times, the people had no choice but to move to other countries for their bread and butter. The dollars earned by them also helped the country’s economy significantly.

Since then, the country has made considerable policy changes and has continued to multiply militarily and economically. Not to forget that the Philippines experiences multiple earthquakes and typhoons, yet the country has continued to grow.

What’s the future like?

According to experts, the country can quickly restore its position as one of the wealthiest countries in Asia if it continues to grow at this pace. The economy of this country is a newly industrialized emerging market in the Indo-Pacific region. In 2023, it stood at 436 billion dollars, and by 2035, it is even expected to be a trillion-dollar economy.

From relying solely on agriculture to investing in manufacturing, the country has come a long way. With an average growth rate of six percent since 2010, the Philippines is one of the fastest-growing countries in the world.

Being a key player in the global export game, it exports a variety of products.

First up, we’ve got electronics and semiconductors. The Philippines is a powerhouse when it comes to producing integrated circuits, semiconductors, and electronic components that you probably use every day!

Next on the list is machinery and transport equipment. Think cars, aircraft, and ships – yep, the Philippines is in on that action too!

Now, let’s talk coconuts! The Philippines is famous for its coconut products like coconut oil, copra, and desiccated coconut. Who doesn’t love a bit of tropical goodness?

And speaking of tropical, we can’t forget about fruits and veggies! From bananas and pineapples to mangoes and papayas, the Philippines is shipping out all the tasty tropical treats.

But wait, there’s more! The Philippines also exports apparel and garments, wood products, minerals and metals like nickel and copper, and a whole array of delicious food and beverages.

Trade Partners

First up, we’ve got the United States. Yep, the Philippines and the U.S. are like two peas in a pod when it comes to trade. They’ve got a strong partnership, exchanging goods like electronics, machinery, and agricultural products.

Next on the list is Japan. This Asian powerhouse is a significant trading partner for the Philippines, particularly in the electronics and automotive industries. Talk about a match made in trade heaven!

Now, let’s talk about China. With its booming economy, China is a significant importer of Philippine goods like fruits, minerals, and seafood. It’s a win-win situation for both countries!

But wait, there’s more! The Philippines also has robust trade relationships with countries like Singapore, Hong Kong, Germany, and South Korea. These partnerships bring in a variety of products, from textiles to technology.

And let’s not forget about our neighbors in ASEAN – the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Countries like Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia are key trading partners, fostering economic growth and regional cooperation.

Now you can see why the Philippines has been named one of the Tiger Club Economies, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Thailand. By 2055, it is expected to become one of the largest economies in the world, surpassing most of the Asian countries.

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